27 October 1782, Genoa, republic of Genoa – 27 May 1840, Nice, France
Niccolò Paganini was an Italian violist, guitarist, composer and principal violin virtuoso of the 19th century. A popular idol, he inspired the Romantic mystique of the virtuoso and revolutionized violin technique.
After initial study with his father, Paganini studied with a local violinist, G. Servetto, and then with the celebrated Giacomo Costa. He made his first appearance in 1793. In 1797, accompanied by his father, he toured Lombardy, where with each concert his reputation grew. Soon after, gaining his independence he indulged excessively in gambling and romantic love affairs. At one point he pawned his violin because of gambling debts; a French merchant lent him a Guarneri violin to play a concert and, after hearing him, gave him the instrument.
Niccolò Paganini – 24 Cprices for Solo Violin, Op.1 • Violin Itzhak Perlman
Between 1801 and 1807 he wrote the 24 Capricci for unaccompanied violin, displaying the novel features of his technique, and the two sets of six sonatas for violin and guitar.
Niccolò Paganini – 6 Sonatas for violin and guitar, op. 2
He was appointed director of music at Piombino by Napoleon’s sister, Élisa Bonaparte Baciocchi. In 1828 Paganini experienced great success in Vienna, and his appearances in Paris and London in 1831 were equally sensational. His tour of England and Scotland in 1832 made him a wealthy man.
Niccolò Paganini – Violin Concerto No. 1 in D Major • Limburg Symphony Orchestra Maastricht, Conductor Yoel Levi, Violin Shlomo Mintz
Paganini’s romantic personality and adventures created in his own day the legend of a Mephistophelean figure. Stories circulated that he was in league with the devil and that he had been imprisoned for murder; his burial in consecrated ground was delayed for five years.
Niccolò Paganini – Violin Concerto No 2 in B minor, Op 7 • Ural Philharmonic Orchestra, Conductor Dimitri Liss, Violin Tedi Papavrami
His violin technique, based on that of his works, principally the Capricci, the violin concertos, and the sets of variations, demanded a wide use of harmonics and pizzicato effects, new methods of fingering and even of tuning. In performance he improvised brilliantly. He was also a flamboyant showman who used trick effects such as severing one or two violin strings and continuing the piece on the remaining strings.
The Best of Niccolò Paganini
***** [În română] *****
27 octombrie 1782, Genoa, Republica Genoa – 27 mai 1840, Nice, Franța
Niccolò Paganini a fost un violonist, violist, chitarist și compozitor italian. Este unul din cei mai faimoși virtuozi ai viorii și este considerat unul dintre cei mai mari violoniști din toate timpurile, având o intonație și o tehnică inovativă perfecte. A primit primele lectii de la tatal sau inainte sa implineasca 6 ani, dupa care a fost instruit de cei mai buni profesori din Genova.
Niccolò Paganini – Caprice No. 24 in A Minor • Violin Itzhak Perlman
Debutul in public si l-a facut in 1790, cand a compus si prima sonata. Cinci ani mai tarziu, s-a mutat in Parma, insa muzicienii de acolo i-au spus ca nu pot sa il mai invete nimic, astfel incat a inceput sa exerseze de unul singur cate 15 ore pe zi. In 1797 a efectuat primul sau turneu, inregistrand succes dupa succes. Faima sa a depasit granitele Italiei, el sustinand concerte in toate marile capitale ale Europei.
Nicolo Paganini – Concertul nr 1 în Re major • Vioară Ion Voicu
A castigat sume imense pe care insa le-a rispit prin cazinouri, patima pentru jocurile de noroc aducandu-l in postura de a miza pe propria vioara. A compus 24 de capricii pentru vioara solo, extrem de dificil de interpretat, 12 sonate pentru vioara si chitara, 6 concerte, cvartete si variatiuni. Cariera sa a intrat in declin in 1834, datorita inrautatirii starii sale de sanatate, violonistul murind la data de 27 mai 1840, la Nisa.
Niccolò Paganini – La campanella